Analysis of Risk Factors for Covid-19 Infection


Covid-19 is an acronym for 2019 Coronavirus Disease. Coronaviruses are a large family of viruses common in the world. They can cause respiratory illness in people and animals. This started in China especially in the latter half of 2019 in Wuhan. Over the last two decades, the coronavirus outbreak has caused global concern, including the occurrence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) in 2003 and the recent Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012. I will.

Covid-19 is a disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 that causes what doctors call respiratory infections. It can affect the upper respiratory tract, ie. Sinuses, nose and throat or lower respiratory tract, ie. Trachea and lungs. In severe cases it causes severe respiratory illness and even pneumonia.

On January 30, 2020, WHO declared the outbreak of Covid-19 a global emergency. On March 11, 2020, WHO declared a global pandemic.

Covid-19 infection
Covid-19 infection

Risk Factors for Covid-19 Infection:

The following are the risk factors that are most likely to make people susceptible to Covid-19 infection:

  • 65 Years of Age or Older:

People over the age of 65 are at increased risk of Covid-19 infection due to weakened immunity. They are more likely to have some associated complications, such as diabetes, hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Also, the course of the disease tends to be more severe and the mortality rate is higher. However, proper precautions can reduce infections in the elderly population.

  • Chronic Lung Disease and Asthma:

People with asthma are more likely to get Covid-19. Hospital data indicates that respiratory patients are more likely to experience serious complications. There is no cure yet, so the best action people can take is to protect themselves from infection. The same is true for other chronic lung diseases.

  • Serious Heart Disease:

Covid-19 causes direct damage to the lungs and causes an inflammatory response. Infecting the lungs lowers oxygen levels in the blood and lowers blood pressure due to the inflammatory effects of the virus itself. In such cases, the heart must beat faster and stronger to supply oxygen to the major organs.

According to the European Heart Association, people with heart disease, such as those with heart failure, dilated cardiomyopathy, advanced forms of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy, and congenital cyanotic heart disease, are at highest risk. ..

  • Severe Obesity:

More and more reports have linked obesity to more serious Covid-19 infections and deaths. Obesity lowers cardiorespiratory reserves and weakens immune regulation that can help the disease progress to critical stages.

Researchers say that among people with Covid-19 under 60 in New York City, those with a BMI of 30-34 kg / m2 above 35 kg / m2 are hospitalized with a risk of 1.8x and 3.6x We have found that they are more likely to care than people with a BMI of less than 30 kg / m2.

A new study published in Diabetes Care in 2020 concludes that patients with Covid-19 are 2.5 times more likely to develop severe pneumonia in the obese than in those without it. Obesity results in a chronic inflammatory condition. Whether obesity is an independent risk factor for susceptibility to infection requires further study.

  • Diabetes:

Diabetes is a risk factor for hospitalization and death from Covid-19 infection. Diabetics have altered immune responses to infections associated with their cytokine profile and altered immune responses such as activation of T cells and macrophages. Inadequate glycemic control affects some aspects of the immune response to viral infections and may also be secondary bacterial infections in the lungs. Poor glycemic control is a risk factor for Covid-19 infection and its harmful consequences. Therefore, the importance of tight glycemic control in diabetics cannot be overlooked.

  • Chronic Kidney Disease:

People with chronic kidney disease are at increased risk of infection. People on dialysis may have a weakened immune system, making it difficult to fight infections. However, patients with kidney disease should continue their regularly scheduled dialysis treatment and take the necessary precautions as recommended by their healthcare provider.

People who have had a kidney transplant should take anti-rejection drugs, also known as immunosuppressants. This reduces the activity of the immune system.

  • Liver Disease:

All patients with liver disease are at risk of adverse consequences from the virus. Also, people with certain liver disorders are very vulnerable. They include people with immunosuppression due to a liver transplant or autoimmune hepatitis (HAI), and people with liver cancer receiving aggressive chemotherapy.

Immune-Compromised People:

People of all ages can be Immune-Compromised. Conditions that can cause immunodeficiency include cancer treatment, smoking, bone marrow or organ transplantation, immunodeficiency, poor control of AIDS, and long-term use of corticosteroids and other Immune-Compromised medications.

Some Covid-19 patients are likely to have died due to a cytokine storm that activates the immune system and damages even multi-organ failure, sepsis, and even potentially deadly healthy tissue. There is.


Some people at Covid-19 are at high risk of serious infection. Everyone should take steps to protect themselves and others from contracts and expansions. However, people in the high-risk categories must take all necessary precautions to protect themselves.



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