Breast Cancer: Types, Symptoms, Treatment & Diet Guidelines

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Breast Cancer
Breast Cancer

What is Cancer?

Cancer is an uncontrolled, uneven, and abnormal growth of cells causing troubles to the human body in several different ways. Cancer has so many types and can affect different body parts, one of which is known as “Breast Cancer” that can occur in both men and women but women are most at risk of chest cancer.

Breast Cancer:

Breast cancer either forms in the tissue of the breast or spreads through the lymphatic system. The abnormal growth of cells causes lagging and clotting in the breast resulting in an uneven skin like an orange peel of the breast and lesion.

A normal breast has a chest wall, pectoral muscles, lobules (milk-making glands), nipple surface, areola (the darker-toned area around nipples), and lactiferous duct that contain milk to the nipple, fatty tissues, and skin. 

The lymphatic system having two vessels and organs plays two important roles in our lives are (i) these vessels essentially maintain interstitial fluid levels and carry plasma proteins and excess fluid, back into the CVS. (ii) The system carries immunity agents (lymphocytes) that protect our bodies from foreign attacks.

 Breast tumors either be malignant to cancerous or benign to noncancerous. Benign cancer cells promote abnormal growth but do not spread outside of the breast and are also not lethal. Most lumps occur due to the combination of cysts and fibrosis. Cysts are fluid-filled sacs whereas fibrosis is the formation of scars, these changes result in the swelling and pain in the breast. Malignant cancers are lethal and can be spread outside the breast and the abnormal growth of cells is more rapid than normal.

Breast cancer is common in women than men and now it is treatable. Chest cancer can be Invasive [cancerous, malignant spread to organs (metastasis)] or non-invasive (pre-cancerous, still in its original position, eventually converts into invasive chest cancer if not treated).

The inner lining of milk ducts, when attacked by cancer, develops Ductile carcinoma whereas the lobules (milk-producing glands) when attacked by abnormal growth called lobular carcinoma.

Types of Breast Cancer:

  • Ductile carcinoma 🡪 Invasive ductile carcinoma (Ductile Carcinoma in situ) DCIS
  • Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC)
  • Lobular Carcinoma 🡪 Invasive lobular carcinoma (Lobular Carcinoma in situ) LCIS

Inflammatory Breast Cancer (IBC):

This type of cancer is uncommon and often confused by infection of early ages as it does not show ay lump or tumor. About 1% in all 3% of cases of chest cancer could be IBC. It makes the skin look red and warn like an allergic reaction and the breasts start getting bigger, hard, tender, or itchy. It also may make the skin thick and pitted with swelling and pain.

Ductile Carcinoma in Situ (DCIS):

It is non-invasive and contained by milk dust and become invasive if ignored. 

Invasive ductile carcinoma is the most common breast cancer and can be spread to other organs.

The lining of the duct 🡪 Grows/ invades the breast tissues 🡪 spreads to lymph nodes 🡪 other organs

Lobular Carcinoma in Situ (LCIS):

It is non-invasive and contained in the lobules and does not spread to other organs but may become malignant.

Invasive lobular carcinoma: formed in the lobules 🡪 grows through the walls of lobules 🡪spreads

Risk factors that contribute to Breast Cancer:

Risk factors increase your cancer to grow breast cancer more rapidly and promote abnormal cell growth spreading towards other organs of the body.

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Family history
  • Genetic mutation
  • Personal history of breast issues
  • Ethnic background
  • Dense breast tissues
  • Period cycle
  • Hormonal changes
  • Obesity 
  • Unhygienic
  • Smoke
  • Improper sleep cycle
  • Late menopause
  • Proliferators breast condition
  • Radiation exposure

Prevention:

  1. Restrict alcohol/smoke consumption
  2. Improving dietary habits
  3. Maintaining body weight
  4. Breast cancer screening
  5. Physical exercise
  6. Breastfeeding
  7. Postmenopausal hormone therapy

Signs/symptoms:

  • Lump in a breast 
  • Swelling/ pain in the breast, armpits
  • Period pain
  • Redness on breast and pitting condition
  • Rash around the nipple
  • Thickened and tendered areola
  • Deformed breast
  • Nipple become inverted
  • Shape and size of the breast changes
  • Nipple skin started to peel and turned into scaly or flaky

Methods to diagnose:

Some tests and procedures can easily diagnose chest cancer.

  1. Breast examination
  2. Mammogram
  3. Breast ultrasound
  4. Breast MRI scan
  5. Biopsy

Breast test:  1- clinical breast exam (CBE) 2- Breast self-exam (BSE).

Treatment of Breast Cancer:

Treatment of breast cancer depends on the types, stage, or grade of the chest cancer, or how large the tumor is, whether the cancer cells are sensitive to hormones or not, patient’s overall health, age of the patient, patient’s own preference.

The main chest cancer treatments are:

  1. Surgery
  2. Radiation therapy
  3. Biological therapy (targeted drug therapy)
  4. Hormone therapy
  5. Chemotherapy

Diet and Breast Cancer:

Healthy eating always promotes good health to a healthy being and also important for breast cancer too. Try adding 5-6 portions of fruits and vegetables a day daily. A meal with starchy carbohydrates should be controlled. Choose whole grains when possible. Have some low-fat dairy products and choose low sugar levels in the diet. Try adding more fiber to the diet.

Avoid alcohol and plain sugar meals. Read food labels to find hidden sugars in the stuff. Add more water to your diet. Take lemonade to maintain electrolyte balance as well as to boost immunity to fight against cancer. Take vitamin C products.

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